How Taiwanese Cuisine Shapes Identity and Defends Against External Influences

In the global tapestry of cultures, Taiwan emerges as a self-governing island, home to 24 million citizens united under the Republic of China. Nonetheless, its unique identity grapples with the complexities of ambiguous nationhood, as few countries recognize its sovereignty amidst China’s territorial claims. This intricate narrative, woven into history, manifests through various avenues, with culinary traditions emerging as a potent means of asserting its heritage and countering external pressures.

Taiwanese Identity: A Complex Evolution


Taiwan’s population undergoes a dynamic identity evolution, with over 60% identifying as its and around 30% embracing both Taiwanese and Chinese heritage (per a National Chengchi University survey). Only 2.5% exclusively identify as Chinese. However, defining its identity amid the intricate tapestry of national and cultural affiliations is a formidable task. Unraveling the essence of being versus Chinese necessitates crafting a narrative that recognizes and reconciles the influences of Chinese heritage.

Culinary Culture: A Emblem of Identity

Within this intricate mosaic of identity, culinary traditions serve as a canvas for self-expression. Visionary chefs and restaurateurs meticulously craft dishes that mirror Taiwan’s historical roots. This culinary movement has given birth to a unique and exceptional gastronomic culture interwoven with the island’s past. Beyond the realm of semiconductors, Taiwan’s remarkable cuisine gains global recognition, illuminating its multifaceted identity.

Over the past decade, a wave of restaurateurs, writers, and scholars passionately champion Taiwanese cuisine. They have revitalized traditional fine dining by infusing local, especially Indigenous, produce and ingredients. This movement transcends culinary revival; it shapes an identity that is palpable, natural, and deeply embedded in daily life. The evolution of its cuisine embodies the island’s aspiration for recognition as a sovereign nation or, at the very least, a distinctive cultural entity.

Culinary Patriotism: A Pathway to Nationhood

Esteemed food historian Yu-Jen Chen from National Taiwan Normal University eloquently captures this phenomenon. She recognizes that defining and refining its cuisine tangibly connects individuals with their “nationhood.” Food becomes a bridge that transforms the abstract notion of nationhood into a sensory experience.

Ian Lee: Culinary Ambassador of Taiwan’s Essence

Ian Lee, proprietor and executive chef of Taipei’s HoSu Restaurant, epitomizes this narrative. “HoSu,” meaning “good island” in the Taiwanese dialect, pays homage to Taiwan’s abundant blessings. Lee’s culinary creations transcend mere dishes; they are poetic expressions of Taiwan’s landscapes, harvests, and aromas.

Among Lee’s culinary gems is a smoky chargrilled fish inspired by the Atayal, an Indigenous group native to Taiwan. He elevates Dingbiancuo, a beloved street food of rice noodle soup, to a main course. Through his gastronomic offerings, Lee weaves the stories of Taiwan’s vibrant tapestry, inviting diners to immerse themselves in its essence.

Lee’s conviction runs deep: His dishes possess the potential to bolster Taiwanese determination against China’s growing threat. As China’s intentions to annex the island become more pronounced, Lee envisions his cuisine rallying the call for national identity. By cultivating a profound connection to the land, Lee aims to unite Taiwan’s populace in defense of their homeland.

Cuisine and Politics: A Synchronized Dance

The intricate interplay of food and politics is undeniable. Throughout history, cuisine has molded and solidified national identities, as seen in Mexican cuisine’s role in Mexico’s post-independence identity. Similarly, Taiwanese cuisine aims to fortify Taiwan’s self-perception. China’s leader, Xi Jinping, underscores this intermingling: “Whether the public can have vegetables on their tables is a political matter.”

Taiwanese Cuisine: A Journey of Self-Discovery

Taiwanese cuisine’s evolution stemmed from the desire to differentiate itself from colonial Japanese culinary influences in the early 20th century. During the Nationalist Party’s rule, Taiwanese food held a lower status compared to Shanghai and Sichuan cuisines. Nevertheless, the tide turned after the lifting of martial law in 1987, marking the dawn of a new democratic era.

Taiwanese cuisine defies neat categorization. Influential food writer Ching-yi Chen orchestrates events where attendees bring dishes they consider quintessential Taiwanese cuisine. From mapo tofu to eel noodles, the spectrum of diversity is evident. Chen emphasizes that any culinary creation transformed and rejuvenated on Taiwanese soil can rightfully be embraced as “Taiwanese cuisine.”

Culinary Fusion and the Heritage Balance

The conundrum of reconciling Taiwanese cuisine with its Chinese heritage endures. The echoes of ancestral connections persist, even as many seek distance from China’s governance. A delicate equilibrium emerges, where embracing Chinese heritage coexists with nurturing a distinctive Taiwanese identity.

Taipei’s streets embody this duality, bearing both Chinese and Taiwanese influences. Despite Mandarin Chinese’s dominance, the resurgence of the Taiwanese dialect signals a burgeoning identity. Restaurants offer Sichuan, Hunan, and Shanghai cuisines, yet authenticity diverges from mainland Chinese expectations. Dining in Taipei becomes an exploration of fusion and innovation.

Cuisine as a Catalyst for Identity Revival

The journey of rediscovery extends beyond the culinary realm. A resurgence of pride in Taiwanese identity accompanies the elevation of original Taiwanese cuisine. Kuomintang’s political repression for over half a century cast a shadow over Indigenous culture and cuisine. Nonetheless, this narrative is undergoing metamorphosis. Chefs at establishments like Mountain and Sea House resurrect century-old recipes, infusing vitality into traditional Taiwanese banquet dishes. A prime example is the vegetable bun, an intricate creation comprising bottle gourd, carrot slices, and a stuffing of black pork and mushrooms.

Indigenous Identity: A Central Narrative

Elevating Indigenous cuisine and ingredients forms the heart of this movement. In the political sphere, Indigenous groups emerge as integral components of Taiwan’s distinct origins. This narrative highlights the manifold dimensions of Taiwanese nationhood. Despite constituting a mere 2% of the population, Indigenous groups resonate profoundly within the broader tapestry of Taiwanese identity.

Culinary Patriotism: A Unifying Force

Ian Lee draws inspiration from Ukrainians’ resilience against Russia, recognizing the power of shared nationhood. Through his culinary craft, Lee aspires to invigorate an elevated Taiwanese identity. Much like small screws ensuring a system’s smooth operation, individual connections to Taiwan’s identity collectively deter aggression or annexation.

In Taiwan’s diverse identity tapestry, culinary culture emerges as a pivotal thread. It weaves together the island’s past, present, and aspirations, crafting a tapestry that celebrates the essence of Taiwanese nationhood. Amidst its evolution, culinary culture stands as a symbol of resistance, tenacity, and unity, encapsulating the multifaceted core of Taiwan’s identity.

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